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Contact lenses manufactured from silicone hydrogel represent the most important advance in soft contact lens technology in recent years. Wearers would obviouly prefer lenses they can sleep in with total safety, so it was only a matter of time before the industry developed a safe product for continuous wear. After years of ongoing development and testing, such lenses are now readilly available for everone to wear at an affordable price. This article looks at whats so special about silicone hydrogel lenses and why they might be just the right choice for you.

Contact Lenses in Silicone Hydrogel the Vision of the Future?

Contact Lenses in Silicone Hydrogel  the Vision of the Future?The concept of lenses made from silicone hydrogel was first proposed over 20 years ago. The potential benefits were clear but the technological challenge was as difficult as needing to combine oil and water to produce an optically clear product. Researcher organizations have to date invested considerable academic and financial resources to achieve the high performance soft lenses of today. They have done this quite simply because they see this material as the way forward and the ultimate standard of the future.At the time of writing, silicone hydrogel lenses are available in the USA from four manufacturers: "Night & Day" and "O2OPTIX" from CIBA Vision, "Pure Vision" from Bausch & Lomb, and "Acuvue OASYS" and "Advance" from J&J Vision Care.OXYGEN TRANSPORTSo whats so special about silicone hydrogel as a lens material? Essentially, the great benefit of this material is its ability to transport oxygen to the eye and thus maintain proper eye health. Modern contact lens technology is all to do with oxygen permability, which is measured using the "Dk" index. And for optimal oxygen transmission, this must be as high as possible.The Dk of traditional, non-silicone based hydrogel lenses is directly related to the amount of water that the material can hold, since oxygen dissolves into the water-component of the material and thus diffuses through the lens. The Dk in fact increases logarithmically with increasing water content. Water itself has a Dk of only 80, thus placing a ceiling on the Dk of convential materials, and the original soft contact lens material, polyHEMA, possesses a Dk of only around 10 (with a water content of about 38%).However, in silicone hydrogels, the relationship between Dk and water content is the opposite. Here higher water content implies lower Dk. With these lenses Dk increases significantly as the silicone content - not water content - of the lens increases. The Dk values of silicone hydrogel contact lenses are much higher than those of older soft lens materials.SLEEPING IN CONTACT LENSESAccording to market data from CIBA Vision, 84% of soft contact lens wearers occasionally sleep with their lenses in, and one-third admit to doing this regularly. 25% of wearers of one to two-week disposable lenses with low oxygen transmissibility occasionally or routinely sleep in their lenses overnight. And 72% of soft contact lens wearers said they would prefer to be allowed to wear their lenses overnight provided it was safe.Thus the demand for lenses with the capablities of silicone hydrogels is evidently very high with almost three-quarters of soft lens wearers wanting to be able to sleep in their lenses. LENS HANDLINGSilicone hydrogel lenses are significantly more rigid than their conventional counterparts, due to the presence of silicone. This increased rigidity does possess some advantages, making the lenses markedly easier to handle and thus the ideal choice for wearers with a less delicate touch. There is a downside to this however in that the rigidity makes the lenses less prone to adopting the shape of the eye so readily, resulting in the possibility for some of reduced comfort.REDUCED DEPOSITIONSHistorically, the deposition of proteins and lipids has been a problem with "contact lenses" . The amount of depositions is essentially linked to the duration of wear, the lens material and the tear composition of each individual wearer. With traditional lenses, a frequent replacement schedule greatly reduces the buildup of harmful deposits.Silicone hydrogel contact lenses have been proven to offer major benefits in the reduction of protein and lysozyme deposition. Indeed, combined with the correct replacement schedule and appropriate care system, problems associated with protein deposition have become almost a thing of the past.DRY EYESA problem frequently encountered by wearers of traditional soft contact lenses is one of a feeling of discomfort and "grittiness" in the eyes towards the end of the day. It has been reported that after one week wearing silicone hydrogel lenses, the quantity of regular soft lens wearers in a particular study group who previously suffered significantly from end-of-day dryness, was reduced dramatically to only 13% of the sample.LIFESTYLE BENEFITSSilicone hydrogel contact lenses also provide some benefits that conventional lenses don't. Continuous wear contact lenses can be particularly beneficial for use by members of certain professions, such as medical workers, police, the armed forces and firefighters who frequently work unpredictable and long hours.Furthermore, an increasing numbers of contact lens wearers can now enjoy active outdoor lifestyles, enjoying pursuits such as camping and hiking where it is often difficult to handle and disinfect the lenses with the appropriate level of hygiene.THE FUTURE FOR CONTACT LENSESThere is much evidence to suggest that, owing to their significant benefits over conventional soft lenses, silicone hydrogel lenses will ultimately, and sooner rather than later, displace other types of contact lens as the prefferred choice for both daily and overnight wear for the majority of contact lens wearers. Silicone hydrogel lenses provide a much improved physical performance, excellent handling properties and greater comfort. They might be considered as the ideal lens for general purpose use that exists today and are likely to become the new everyday standard.

Steroids Anabolic Steroids & Their Side Effects

Steroids  Anabolic Steroids & Their Side Effects

Steroids anabolic steroids are defined as any synthetic hormones affecting the development and growth of sex organs. Anabolic steroids are medically used to treat the conditions, such as delayed puberty and some types of the impotence, occurring due to abnormally low level of testosterone in body, and to treat the chronic wasting disease, such as cancer and AIDS. Anabolic steroids are often used to build muscles and increase their body size. These steroids are often used by body builders to bulk up their bodies. Anabolic steroids are often used by jocks to increase their strength and stamina. They are also used by young boys and girls for various cosmetic reasons. Anabolic steroids are usually dubbed as roids, hype, juice, weight trainers, gym candy, stackers, arnolds, or pumpers, by the non therapeutic steroids users. However, the non therapeutic use of steroids is steroid abuse and any type of steroid abuse or over use has several types of effects, side effects, and serious consequences in humans. Steroids are taken orally in form of pills, or injected with a needle and typically in intervals of weeks or months. The athletes, who share needles for injecting the steroids, are at higher risk of serious infections including Hepatitis B and HIV, the AIDS virus.Abuse or over use of anabolic steroids has many effects & side effects on human body. Some of the serious and long lasting side effects of anabolic steroids include premature balding or hair loss, dizziness, mood swings (anger, depression and aggression), hallucinations, extreme feelings of mistrust or fear, sleeping problems, vomiting and nausea, trembling, high blood pressure, aching joints, jaundice, liver damage, urinary problems, shortening of the final adult height, increased risk of developing heart disease, stroke. Anabolic steroids have different side effects on Males and females. The side effects of anabolic steroids on males include reduced sperm count, increase in nipple and breast size, impotence, and enlarged prostate, and the side effects of anabolic steroids on females include reduced breast size, increase in facial and body hair, menstrual problems, and deepened voice. Anabolic steroids can also cause many serious psychological effects. Some of the users become aggressive or combative, which is often termed as roid rage.

Understanding Health News

Understanding Health News

With so much news coming out about health these days, many people may feel a bit overwhelmed.Fortunately, help may be at your fingertips. A new Web site, HealthNewsReview.org, is designed to support excellence in health and medical news reporting by grading stories on accuracy, balance and completeness."Health care consumers who use HealthNewsReview.org will learn how to look for evidence in any claim made by any source, including news stories," said Professor Gary Schwitzer of the University of Minnesota School of Journalism and Mass Communication and publisher of the Web site. "Readers will become not only smarter consumers of health care but smarter consumers of news," he added. A team of impartial reviewers at the site assesses the quality of the health stories that run in the nation's top 50 newspapers, the evening network newscasts, Associated Press wire services and weekly news magazines using a standardized rating system. The team includes medical and public health professionals, journalists and researchers. Funded by the nonprofit Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making, the site does not provide medical advice-instead it helps readers decipher the often conflicting news about health claims. "The Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making believes that health care consumers should have access to the most timely, accurate and unbiased information when making medical decisions," said Jack Fowler, president of the Foundation. "Since the media play such a significant role in how people obtain much of this information, HealthNewsReview.org is a natural extension of the Foundation's mission."HealthNewsReview.org uses a star system to rate the stories based on different criteria, including: the novelty and availability of the idea; the existence of alternative options; costs of a treatment or procedure; sources of information in developing the story; and quantification of harms and benefits of a treatment or procedure.The Web site provides information on a variety of topics, including breast cancer research, the latest on children's vaccines and the value of PSA tests. The site only reviews news stories that make a therapeutic claim about specific treatments, procedures, vitamins, nutritional supplements and diagnostic and screening tests. Does Prozac treat anorexia? Will acupuncture cure hot flashes? Every day, the site looks at news stories and helps readers make sense of information that affects individuals and their friends and family.You can get a healthy dose of useful information from a new Web site designed to assess health reports.

Fixing Teenage Psychiatric Problems

Fixing Teenage Psychiatric Problems

In many ways, never is a human being more socially (and perhaps psychologically) combustible than during the teen years. Hormones, peer pressure, the sense of invincibility, and the folly of youth are all at their most potent mix when one in a teenager. This deadly cocktails of chemicals and external factors can often leave a person in need of medical treatment or therapy later on in life. However, the side effects of folly during the teenage years are not limited to later stages of life. A number of problems can crop up during that critical period itself, aggravating whatever cultural, social, and physiological troubles a person may have already developed. It is then important to find ways to help fix those problems. There are, of course, multiple ways to go about the problem, but research has found that certain tactics are more likely to work on the teen mind than others.According to statistics, the most common problems that a typical teenager faces stems from fractured familial bonds. It is then imperative that therapy and counseling both be geared as much towards helping re-forge those bonds as they are towards fixing the problem. This particular method is heavily based on a methodology that requires that the teen spend vast amounts of time within the family context, provided that the family itself is not dysfunctional or damaged. The family approach takes on a multitude of forms, including techniques designed to correct behavior and repair parental authority relationships. For the most part, these approaches do not make heavy use of psychoactive medication and are generally not used for cases where the teen is involved in a criminal act.Therapy has also been found effective if the therapist acknowledges that the teen is an individual and not just some punk kid. At their particular stage of development, the need to develop a sense of individuality and self is crucial. Acknowledging their belief that they are individuals that should be allowed to develop on their own is integral to earning their trust and convincing them to be more open to behavioral correction and suggestions. This part of the process can take a long time to fully complete, because most teens that have behavioral or psychological problems are unlikely to trust an authority figure of any sort, let alone one that comes from an oft-misunderstood profession. Once the trust has been earned, however, therapy can be carried about smoothly, so long as the psychiatrist does not press too hard on the teen ego.Interestingly, tactics such as military school or boot camp actually do very little to curtail the problems. Rebellious behavior is a natural aspect of the teen years, and only in extreme cases will extreme discipline actually have an appreciable effect. Sending a teen with a discipline problem to a military school may instill a sense of discipline in them, but it can also have the long-term effect of damaging his or her ability to express himself. Others have also reported being reluctant to show or even recognize emotion, particularly if emotional problems were the root of the problems that got them sent to boot camp in the first place. A few rare cases have developed a permanent detachment from those formerly closest to them, being unable to fully reintegrate into the family dynamic after their experience.For counseling that requires some form of medication, such as Prozac or Ritalin, it is best that the teen be put under a program that is tailor-made for them. Programs that offer teenagers residency in an institution generally perform poorly because teens fail to respond to the all-encompassing approach. Counseling and medication have to be suited to their individual situation, condition, and needs. This includes making a personalized schedule for meeting with the therapist, a list of "psychoactive medication" geared towards combating their problem, and making the patient feel comfortable.

The Skinny on Crash Diets

To diet, as the joke goes, means to die with a 'T'. Such is the case of the vain who go on crash diets just because they think they're too fat; that their clothes no longer fit; or because their love handles are too big, even if in truth they are not fat at all. Diet is often equated with nutrition. The dictionary defines it as the act of restricting food intake or at least intake of particular food. Diet as a collective is the amount of food a person eats or drinks during the course of a day. People do it for health reasons, some to simply lose weight, and some altogether for all the wrong reasons.The body needs calories for heat. A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. The unit's name is French and derives from the Latin calor (heat). Although the new unit of energy is joule, calorie remains as the unit of measurement for energy obtained from food. A crash diet is a diet which is extreme in its deprivations - typically restricting calorie intake abruptly. Meant to achieve rapid weight loss, a crash diet differs from outright starvation only slightly. Crash diets are unhealthy and are hardly - if ever - recommended by doctors or dietitians. A crash diet may lead to malnutrition, and is not a suggested means of weight loss. It involves drastically cutting back on the amount of calories that you take in daily. Highly similar to a starvation diet, it is often paired with other weight loss "fixes," including extreme exercise routines and the use of diet pills. Most people follow crash diets yearly in the hopes that they will lose a lot of weight in a very short span of time. Crash diets are recognized by health care professionals and dietitians as being a very dangerous way of trying to lose the excess pounds.At a technical level, when one goes into crash dieting, the body is shocked by a sudden change in food intake. From a high-energy diet to low-energy food regime. There appears to be a rapid weight loss, creating an illusion that the plan is working. At this point, no fat has been lost; what happened is that the body's limited store of glycogen, a form of carbohydrate, is used up. As glycogen is utilized, the body loses water with it, so there appears to be a rapid weight loss.Additionally, weight loss during crash diets doesn't continue for a long time. Eventually, dieters will find themselves hitting a plateau, during which it will become more difficult for them to lose weight. Majority of crash dieters find that this weight loss plateau is followed by weight gain. Many followers of crash diets eventually end up gaining all the weight they lost, with a few additional pounds. This is known as the yo-yo diet effect: just like the up and down motion of a yo-yo, crash dieters find their weight constantly fluctuating with each diet that they go on.The side effects of crash dieting include Vitamin and/or mineral deficiencies, dizziness and/or fainting (due to extreme calorie cutting), pressure and strain on certain organs like the kidneys and the liver, burning off lean muscle and tissues, among other things. In extreme cases, heart attack or stroke can be a result of crash diets; it may even lead to death.There was a woman named Matilda Callaghan, aged 25, who died after going on a crash diet for six months straight. She only consumed three servings of food powder mix per day. She was said to have been battling obesity since she was twelve. Following the diet regime strictly, she was said to have lost ten pound in her first week, four pounds in the second and seven pounds in the third. She was being monitored closely by the dieting firm she had enrolled on. She fell ill and was diagnosed to have died of a heart failure.Before deciding to pursue a weight-loss program, make sure to that it is going to produce a long last result. A balanced diet and moderate regular exercise may take time to get you the figure you wanted, but it will gently get you toned up, and keep the weight off for good.

Salaries In Nursing

If you were to poll nursing students enrolled in associate degree programs in the nations community colleges, you would find that a good percentage of them are persuing second or third careers. Former business majors, accountants, teachers, social workers, bankers and engineers can be found studying to sit for the state boards in Professional Nursing. One of the reasons nursing is chosen for a career are the wages.For high school seniors searching for a career, nursing is wise choice. Where else can an 18 year old go for two years to a reasonably priced community college, and come out with the earning capability to gross up to$75,000 for a staff nurse, according to http://Monster.com. Wages vary from state to state and even within communities. Nurses working for a union organized urban health center affiliated with a university may make more money than a small private community hospital in the same area.Wages are generally paid to staff nurses on an hourly basis. A staff nurse is is a professional nurse who supervises the tasks performed by Licensed Practical Nurses, orderlies and nursing assistants. They provide direct nursing care and make decisions regarding plans of care for patients based on treatment orders written by the patients physician. Most hospitals designate broad perameters within which the nurse operates. Staff nurses need a huge information base to care for the varied needs of her patients.Clinical specialists and advanced practice nurses are paid higher wages based on their advanced education and increased responsibility. In the Northeastern United States, APNs may make up to $90,000. Certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) may make up to $120,000 base pay. CNS, APN, and CRNA are all master prepared.In addition to higher wages for nurses, the high stress nature of the job requires more time off than jobs with less stress. Vacation, personal days and sick time add up to 50 60 days in some Northeastern US hospitals.

Summary

Contact lenses manufactured from silicone hydrogel represent the most important advance in soft contact lens technology in recent years. Wearers would obviouly prefer lenses they can sleep in with total safety, so it was only a matter of time before the industry developed a safe product for continuous wear. After years of ongoing development and testing, such lenses are now readilly available for everone to wear at an affordable price. This article looks at whats so special about silicone hydrogel lenses and why they might be just the right choice for you.